Accounting for Change in Diverse Societies

Accounting for Change in Diverse Societies is a new publication series from the Global Centre for Pluralism focused on six world regions. Each “change case” examines a specific moment when a county altered its approach to diversity, either expanding or eroding the foundations of inclusive citizenship. The series also features thematic overviews by leading global scholars. The series aims to build global understanding of the sources of inclusion and exclusion in diverse societies and the pathways to pluralism. This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre, based in Ottawa, Canada. Read the papers at the links below.

The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of IDRC or its Board of Governors. This analysis was commissioned by the Global Centre for Pluralism to generate global dialogue about the drivers of pluralism. The specific views expressed herein are those of the author.

Change Cases


Bret Gustafson traces past and present struggles over exclusion and inclusion in Bolivia.


Daniela Ikawa writes about building pluralism through affirmative action in Brazil.


Virginie Laurent presents Colombia’s constitutional reform process as an  example of a changed conversation about diversity.

Côte d’Ivoire

Abu Bah discusses Côte d’Ivoire’s democratic transition and the dangers of weak institutions.


John Bowen examines French republicanism and how it could be more pluralistic.


Jan Dobbernack explores the public conversation in Germany about expanding access to citizenship.


Rochana Bajpai discusses the lessons from India’s efforts to incorporate difference into the country’s identity.


Hwok-Aun Lee writes about majority affirmative action in Malaysia.


Daniel Agbiboa writes about federalism and group-based inequalities in Nigeria.


Daniel Goh examines Singapore’s institutional commitment to multiculturalism.


Francisco Colom writes about Spain’s democratic transition and the implications for pluralism.

Sri Lanka

Neil DeVotta examines majoritarian politics in Sri Lanka and the roots of pluralism breakdown.

Thematic Overviews

Horizontal Inequalities

Frances Stewart writes about group-based inequalities and the barriers to pluralism.

Hardware and Software

Will Kymlicka writes about the hardware and software of pluralism.


Jane Jenson writes about the institutional foundations of pluralism.


Niraja Jayal discusses pluralism as a strategy for managing diversity.


Christina Murray writes about constitutions as frameworks for pluralism.


Rotimi Suberu considers the advancement of pluralism through various approaches to democracy.