Global Pluralism Index

Measuring Pluralism in Diverse Societies: Global Pluralism Index

Living  with  diversity  is  a  shared  global  challenge,  faced  by  developed  and  developing  countries alike. Vulnerable groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities, are often subjected to various forms of political, economic, and cultural exclusion in their everyday lives. In order to create peaceful, pluralistic societies, these exclusionary practices must be systematically addressed. To do this, practitioners and policymakers must be able to monitor trends in exclusion and inclusion around the world. However, while there are tools that monitor specific aspects of diversity such as religious freedom or indigenous rights, there are currently no tools that evaluate a society’s treatment of all types of diversity and assess practices across the economic, political, and cultural spheres. To address this critical gap, the Global Centre for Pluralism is developing the Global Pluralism Index – a practitioner-focused tool that will measure societies’ treatment of diversity holistically and track trends towards or away from pluralism over time.

The Global Pluralism Index will:

  • Raise awareness and catalyze debate about pluralism around the world;
  • Include measures of recognition of diversity (laws, policies, practices by states and civil society) and belonging (attitudes and perceptions) across political, economic and  cultural domains;
  • Enable policymakers, practitioners and change-makers to assess the state of pluralism in their societies, identify where pluralism deficits are taking place, and highlight the pathways towards greater inclusion;
  • Track a society’s trajectory of choice over time, either towards greater inclusion or exclusion;
  • Identify early signs of division and exclusion, enabling upstream conflict prevention, long before conflict becomes imminent;
  • Contribute to ongoing global efforts to measure inclusion for the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Working Papers

The Global Pluralism Index builds on a three-year research program in which the Centre explored a variety of approaches to creating the index. Collected below are several working papers on these approaches and how the Centre could use them.

Audit Tool Survey

Argyro Kartsonaki and Stefan Wolff

Scenario Planning

Stefan Wolff

Values-Based Benchmarks

Argyro Kartsonaki and Stefan Wolff

Technical Advisory Group

The Centre has convened a group of advisors to provide technical and analytical expertise during the development of the index.

Anna-Mária Bíró

Anna-Mária Bíró -

Anna-Mária Bíró is the director of the Tom Lantos Institute since 2013.  Anna-Mária Bíró has dedicated her career to bringing awareness to minority populations and promoting human rights. Between 1996 and 2004, she was the head of the Budapest Co-ordination Office of Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and she worked as the Advisor on Minority Affairs of the OSCE Mission in Kosovo. Prior to working at the Tom Lantos Institute, Anna-Mária Bíró was a senior consultant to the Managing Multiethnic Communities Programme, LGI/Open Society Foundations.

In 2015, Anna-Mária Bíró lectured at the Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary. She is member of The UK Network on Minority Groups and Human Rights, as well as a delegate in the Academic Working Group of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance. Anna-Mária speaks English, French, Romanian and Hungarian.


Allison Harell

Allison Harell -

Allison Harrell is Strategic Chair on the Political Psychology of Social Solidarity at Université du Québec
à Montréal and Associate Director of the Centre for the Study of Democratic Citizenship. She is an expert in quantitative and survey methodologies, and is currently a co-lead for the Consortium of Electoral Democracy (C-Dem)– a SSHRC-funded research initiative with government, civil society and academic partners (including GCP) that is measuring Canadian political and social attitudes before, during, and after elections.


Ahmet İçduygu

Ahmet İçduygu -

Ahmet İçduygu is Dean of the College of Social Sciences and Humanities at Koç University, Istanbul Turkey. He currently holds a dual appointment as a full professor at Koç, one is in the Department of International Relations and the other is in the Department of Sociology. As the Director of the Migration Research Center at Koç University (MiReKoc), he is involved in arranging and participating in a range of projects in order to motivate national and international networks and to strengthen research capacity in the field of migration.

Prof. İçduygu has conducted various research projects for the international organizations such as IOM, UNHCR, EU, OECD and ILO. His research interest and expertise include migration studies, theories and practices of citizenship, international organizations, civil society, nationalism and ethnicity, and research methods.


Niraja Gopal Jayal

Niraja Gopal Jayal -

Niraja Gopal Jayal is currently a professor at Centre for Law and Governance at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India and has held academic and visiting positions at London School of Economics, Princeton University and EHESS Paris, among others. She is an expert on state-building, citizenship and democracy in South Asia and has published numerous books and articles about citizenship and diversity.

She has also served in advisory and leadership position for initiatives like World Governance Survey (2001) and State-building in the Developing World (2009-13).


Will Kymlicka

Will Kymlicka -

Will Kymlicka is the Canada Research Chair in Political Philosophy at Queen’s University. Dr. Kymlicka is a leading expert on multiculturalism and citizenship, whose published work includes Multicultural Citizenship and Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. Along with Dr. Keith Banting, he co-leads the Multiculturalism Policy Index, a monitoring tool that measures policy commitments for accommodating indigenous peoples, immigrants, and national minorities in OECD countries.


Hwok Aun Lee

Hwok Aun Lee -

Hwok Aun Lee is currently a Senior Fellow at Institute of Southeat Asian Studies in Singapore. He is an expert on labour, social policy and education in Malaysia. He has worked extensively on labour policies, macroeconomic reforms and human development in South east Asia. Hwok Aun has researched and published widely on affirmative action in Malaysia and South Africa.

He was previously head of Development Studies, Faculty of Economics at University of Malaya.


Corinne Lennox

Corinne Lennox -

Corinne Lennox is a Senior Lecturer in Human Rights at the School of Advanced Study, University of London. She is an expert on human rights frameworks and rights-based mobilizations by minority groups, and her published work includes Transnational Social Mobilisation and Minority Rights: Identity, Advocacy and Norms and Activist Scholarship in Human Rights.


Edem Selormey

Edem Selormey -

Edem Selormey is Director of Capacity-Building for Afrobarometer network, and formerly served as the Fieldwork Operations Manager for anglophone West Africa, and North and East Africa. She is also Director of Research and Knowledge Management at the Ghana Centre for Democratic Development in Accra.


Ashad Sentogo

Ashad Sentogo -

Ashad Sentogo is the Director, of Africa Programs at the Auschwitz Institute for Prevention of Genocide and Other Mass Atrocities, New York (USA). As a Drucie French Cumbie Fellow, his research work focused on power-sharing and ethnic conflict in Africa. He previously worked with the Genocide Prevention Program at George Mason University as Program Officer on Prevention of Genocide attached to the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) and helped to establish the Regional and National Committees in Member States. Dr. Sentongo’s publications focus on managing ethnic conflicts, conflict transformation, and traditional approaches to conflict resolution in Africa.


Rachel Sieder

Rachel Sieder -

Rachel Sieder is Senior Research Professor at the Center for Research and Graduate Studies in Social Anthropology (CIESAS) in Mexico City. She is also associate senior researcher at the Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen, Norway, and associate fellow at the Institute for the Study of the Americas, University of London. She has an MA in Latin American Studies and a PhD in Politics from the University of London. Her research interests include human rights, indigenous rights, social movements, indigenous law, legal anthropology, the state and violence. Her published work includes Demanding Justice and Security: Indigenous Women and Legal Pluralities in Latin America.


Frances Stewart

Frances Stewart -

Frances Stewart is Professor Emeritus in Development Economics at Oxford University and former director of the Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security, and Ethnicity (also at Oxford). She has previously worked as advisor to UNDP’s Human Development Index and consulted on early Human Development Reports. Dr. Stewart has written extensively on group-based inequalities, including Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies and the influential UNICEF study Adjustment with a Human Face. 


Stefan Wolff

Stefan Wolff -

Stefan Wolff is Professor of International Security at Birmingham University, and is an expert on the prevention, management and settlement of ethnic conflicts. He frequently advises governments and international organizations and has been involved in various stages of peace negotiations including in Iraq, Sudan, Moldova, Sri Lanka and Kosovo. He has published over 80 articles and book chapters, as well as 17 books, including Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective.



The Centre thanks the International Development Research Centre for their financial and intellectual partnership on the Global Pluralism Index project.